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9/11-type terrorist attacks

9/11 as a Metaphor: 3/11, 26/11, 13/11

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In this work, I examine the phenomenon of 9/11-type terrorist attacks that have proliferated globally since 9/11, with a special focus on the Madrid attacks on March 11, 2004, the Mumbai attacks on November 26, 2008, and the Paris attacks on November 13, 2015. These terrorist attacks are a reckoning for colonial and imperialist nations to reflect on how their policies in. Middle Eastern and African countries have impacted Muslim societies around the world. This neon work nudges the viewer to connect these transnational dots, and hopefully dig into the history of how terrorism has evolved since the 1960s around the world.

James Moore explains the roots of militant Islam, and how modern terrorism has evolved in the Middle East and South Asia in three phases. The colonial era, failed post-colonial attempts at state formation, and the creation of Israel generated the first phase of modern international terrorism, starting in 1968. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the subsequent anti-Soviet mujahedeen war funded by America, lasting from 1979 to 1989, stimulated the second phase of terrorism in the form of insurgencies in North Africa, Kashmir, Chechnya, China, Bosnia, and the Philippines. The third phase began in 1991 with the disintegration of post-Cold War states, easy availability of  advanced conventional weapons and know-how, unstable governments in areas such as the Balkans, Afghanistan, Colombia, and certain African countries, led to the globalization of terrorism.

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9/11 Anti-Memorial Project

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What to learn more about 9/11 Anti-Memorial Project project?


The 9/11 Anti-Memorial Project comprises artworks that engage with the post-9/11 US and global socio-political issues, from a counter-memory perspective.


The artworks in this project are anti-memorials to 9/11, a traumatic geopolitical event, and highlight narratives that were erased from mainstream discourses of 9/11. It also seeks to make connections with 9/11-type attacks worldwide, in India, London, Paris, and Madrid.

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